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Crofts, Daniel W.  “Seward, William Henry.” www.anb.org/articles/04/04-00898.htmlAmerican National Biography Online Feb. 2000.  

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Diesel, Lacey M.  “Lyman Trumbull:  From Belleville into History.”  http://www.lib.niu.edu/ipo/ihy990230.htmlIllinois Periodicals Online.  Northern Illinois University.   

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Finkelman, Paul.  “Slavery.”  In Kermit L. Hall, ed., The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 1992.  Pp. 701-798. 

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Lunde, Erik S.  “Greeley, Horace.”  www.anb.org/articles/16/16-00653.htmlAmerican National Biography Online Feb. 2000. 

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Osborn, David.  “Trumbull, Lyman.”  www.anb.org/articles/04/04-00998.htmlAmerican National Biography Online Feb. 2000. 

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Parish, William E.  “Henderson, John Brooks.”  www.anb.org/articles/04/04-00491.htmlAmerican National Biography Online Feb. 2000. 

Paschall, Rod.  “Hunter, David.”  www.anb.org/articles/05/05-00369.htmlAmerican National Biography Online Feb. 2000. 

Plummer, Mark.  Lincoln’s Rail-Splitter:  Governor Richard J. Oglesby.  Champaign, Illinois:  University of Illinois Press, 2001. 

Schlup, Leonard.  “Wilson, James Falconer.”  www.anb.org/articles/04/04-01216.htmlAmerican National Biography Online Feb. 2000. 

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Shoemaker, Floyd C.  “John Brooks Henderson:  Author of the Thirteenth Amendment Abolishing Slavery in the United States.”  Introduction by Kirby Ross.  www.civilwarstlouis.com/History2/henderson.htm; Civil War St. Louis Online

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Stephens, Thomas E., “Crittenden, John Jordan.” www.anb.org/articles/03/03-00117.htmlAmerican National Biography Online Feb. 2000.  

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Trefousse, Hans L.  “Butler, Benjamin Franklin.” www.anb.org/articles/04/04-00183.htmlAmerican National Biography Online Feb. 2000. 

Trefousse, Hans L.  “Johnson, Andrew.”  www.anb.org/articles/04/04-00566.htmlAmerican National Biography Online Feb. 2000. 

Vorenberg, Michael.  “Ashley, James.”  www.anb.org/articles/04/04-00039.htmlAmerican National Biography Online Feb. 2000. 

Vorenberg, Michael.  Final Freedom:  The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment.  New York:  Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Zeitz, Josh.  “Stevens, Thaddeus.”  www.anb.org/articles/04/04-00953.htmlAmerican National Biography Online Feb. 2000.

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